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Different drone countermeasures application entities focus on different black flying activities. The application subjects of drone countermeasures technology are divided into military, police, and civilian, and the purposes, objectives, and means of different application subjects are different.
Military anti drones are mainly aimed at military warfare and defense of key military areas. Facing all types of black flying targets, they focus on malicious attacks, with a focus on large military drones with strong aggressiveness.
Due to the importance of military tasks, no mistakes are allowed. It is required that the equipment defense rate should be close to 100%, and precise strikes should be made against drones. The defense targets are mainly large drones with military attack capabilities. The detection methods are mostly based on radar optoelectronics, which helps with precise strikes. The strike methods are also diverse and can ignore the factor of price.
Police anti drones are mainly targeted at key areas such as prisons, venues, and important activity sites, facing all types of "black flying" targets. Based on China's airspace management system, the main body for handling aerial targets is the Air Force, so for large-scale drone targets, malicious attacks, and other behaviors, joint military and police disposal is required.
At the same time, based on the specific urban environment, the police countermeasures mainly target small and light unmanned aerial vehicles. In addition, due to the highly standardized deployment of most police prevention tasks and the complex and ever-changing task environment, combined with technological development and price factors, it is required to have a defense rate of nearly 90%, and the technical means should be diverse to avoid secondary disasters.
Taking airports as an example, civilian anti drone missions can be divided into daily prevention and major transportation tasks. Prevention during the guarantee period: Daily prevention should focus on lucky and unintentional "black flying", with the main user being the airport. During the period of major task support, prevention should focus on all types of "black flying", with the main users being airports, public security and other departments. It is necessary to establish a military police civilian joint prevention mechanism, which can refer to police technology.
Due to the fact that civil airports have primary radar control equipment that can detect large drones, and tower and flight crew members can also visually identify large drones, large drones may not be a daily target for civil airports. In 2017, the Civil Aviation Administration of China conducted a collision test between unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and passenger planes, verifying the impact and tolerable range of micro UAVs on flight collisions. Coupled with factors such as cost and technology, micro UAVs can also be excluded from the daily prevention targets of airports. Therefore, the main types of unmanned aerial vehicles for daily prevention at airports are light and small unmanned aerial vehicles, and the equipment defense rate should be close to 80%.
Compared to military and police use, airport related equipment requires 24/7 operation, which requires higher reliability of the equipment. In addition, it is currently impossible for airports to assign dedicated personnel to maintain and use equipment. Therefore, countermeasures should consider intelligence, informatization, and integration, and should be able to integrate with existing airport equipment, air traffic control equipment, and information systems.